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AI Agency landscape

Many lawmakers are concerned with the implications of AI for national security

Many lawmakers are concerned with the implications of AI for national security, including the pace of adoption by the US defense and intelligence communities and how AI is being used by geopolitical adversaries. There have been congressional hearings that have examined barriers to the Department of Defense (DoD) adopting AI technologies and considered risks from adversarial AI. These lawmakers are also calling for guidelines to govern the responsible use of AI in military operations, such as weapons systems, to avoid unintended actions when AI is utilized.

Establishing and maintaining a competitive advantage on the global stage is a top priority for many lawmakers. Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) expressed the need for the “U.S. to stay ahead of China and shape and leverage this powerful technology” by launching a bipartisan initiative to develop AI regulation.

Policymakers have raised concerns about AI’s potential impact on jobs

Many policymakers have raised concerns about AI’s potential impact on jobs, particularly in areas where workers could eventually be replaced. They are also questioning who should bear the cost of displacement and retraining workers in a world powered by AI. Additionally, there are questions about how to train a workforce to adjust to rapidly evolving AI technology and whether AI-reliant companies should be regulated and taxed differently than companies staffed by humans.

While concerns about the impacts of technology on workers are not new, the rapid pace of AI technology adoption by companies is unparalleled, creating additional challenges and pressure for policymakers.

Policymakers are focused on the risk AI technologies carry in making discriminatory decisions

Policymakers are specifically focused on the risk AI technologies carry in making discriminatory decisions. Bias issues have been examined in several congressional hearings on AI and will continue to be a key concern as regulatory approaches are considered. Just like human decision-makers, policymakers understand that AI technologies can be prone to discrimination. They recognize that AI technologies are only as effective as the data sets and algorithms they are built upon and the large language models that underpin them.

In congressional hearings, policymakers have expressed concerns about the potential for AI to discriminate and have heard testimony about the misidentification of individuals, especially those belonging to minority groups, by facial recognition software.

A report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides an “initial socio-technical framing for AI bias” that focuses on mitigation through appropriate representation in AI data sets. It also emphasizes the importance of testing, evaluation, validation, and verification of AI systems, as well as considering the impacts of human factors, including societal and historical biases.


The AI Agency landscape is constantly evolving, and policymakers are actively addressing various concerns related to national security, job displacement, and discriminatory decision-making. By understanding these concerns and implementing appropriate regulations and guidelines, it is possible to harness the power of AI while mitigating potential risks. AI has the potential to transform industries and society, and policymakers play a crucial role in ensuring its responsible and ethical deployment.

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